mao zedong death cause

Although Soviet and Comintern delegates attended, the first congress ignored Lenin's advice to accept a temporary alliance between the Communists and the "bourgeois democrats" who also advocated national revolution; instead they stuck to the orthodox Marxist belief that only the urban proletariat could lead a socialist revolution. [69] At the First KMT Congress, held in Guangzhou in early 1924, Mao was elected an alternate member of the KMT Central Executive Committee, and put forward four resolutions to decentralise power to urban and rural bureaus. Mao told Edgar Snow in 1936 that he had started the study of the Confucian Analects and the Four Books at a village school when he was eight, but that the books he most enjoyed reading were Water Margin, Journey to the West, the Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Dream of the Red Chamber. He put no value on human life. Meanwhile, KMT troops had invaded Jinggangshan, leaving them without a base. [313], Having grown up in Hunan, Mao spoke Mandarin with a marked Hunanese accent. [2][unreliable source? An estimate of around 400,000 deaths is a widely accepted minimum figure, according to Maurice Meisner. [79][80] In April 1927, Mao was appointed to the KMT's five-member Central Land Committee, urging peasants to refuse to pay rent. He has many great-grandchildren alive today. [327] Mao published poems in classical forms starting in his youth and his abilities as a poet contributed to his image in China after he came to power in 1949. While one-tenth of Chinese people—an estimated 100 million—did suffer during the period,[236] some scholars, such as Lee Feigon and Mobo Gao, claim there were many great advances, and in some sectors the Chinese economy continued to outperform the West. [64] He continued organizing workers to strike against the administration of Hunan Governor Zhao Hengti. They were: Note that the character zé (澤) appears in all of the siblings' given names. [319], Mao had learned some English language, particularly through Zhang Hanzhi, who was his English teacher, interpreter and diplomat who later married Qiao Guanhua, Foreign Minister of China and the head of China's UN delegation. [55] Mao found that his articles had achieved a level of fame among the revolutionary movement, and set about soliciting support in overthrowing Zhang. Nevertheless, Banister concluded that the official data implied that around 15 million excess deaths incurred in China during 1958–61, and that based on her modelling of Chinese demographics during the period and taking account of assumed under-reporting during the famine years, the figure was around 30 million. [81] Presenting his conclusions at the Enlarged Land Committee meeting, many expressed reservations, some believing that it went too far, and others not far enough. He later adopted Marxism–Leninism while working at Peking University, and became a founding member of the Communist Party of China (CPC), leading the Autumn Harvest Uprising in 1927. 革命不是請客吃飯,不是做文章,不是繪畫繡花,不能那樣雅緻,那樣從容不迫,文質彬彬,那樣溫良恭讓。革命是暴動,是一個階級推翻一個階級的暴烈的行動。Revolution is not a dinner party, nor an essay, nor a painting, nor a piece of embroidery; it cannot be so refined, so leisurely and gentle, so temperate, kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. Although the CPC temporarily allied with the KMT under the United Front during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), China's civil war resumed after Japan's surrender and in 1949 Mao's forces defeated the Nationalist government, which withdrew to Taiwan. Mao believed that a revolution of culture would unseat and unsettle the "ruling class" and keep China in a state of "perpetual revolution" that, theoretically, would serve the interests of the majority, rather than a tiny and privileged elite. Upon the death of Stalin, Mao believed (perhaps because of seniority) that the leadership of Marxist doctrine would fall to him. [112][113][114] The CPC Central Committee moved to Jiangxi which it saw as a secure area. 敵駐我騷, [93] He laid down rules for his soldiers: prompt obedience to orders, all confiscations were to be turned over to the government, and nothing was to be confiscated from poorer peasants. In Li Zhisui's The Private Life of Chairman Mao, Mao Yuanxin played a role in the final power-struggles.[306]. [37] Increasingly interested in the techniques of war, he took a keen interest in World War I, and also began to develop a sense of solidarity with workers. At least 180 thousand Chinese troops died during the war. [citation needed]. Both men are thought of as having done terrible things yet this does not necessarily prevent them from being used as positive symbols. For example, they note that Mao was well aware that his policies would be responsible for the deaths of millions. [335], Communist Party /  People's Republic of China ( Red Army → 8th Route Army, N4A, etc. Landlords, rich peasants, former members of the nationalist regime, religious leaders, rightists, counter-revolutionaries and the families of such individuals died in the greatest numbers. One of his granddaughters is businesswoman Kong Dongmei, one of the richest people in China. Although the steel quotas were officially reached, almost all of the supposed steel made in the countryside was iron, as it had been made from assorted scrap metal in home-made furnaces with no reliable source of fuel such as coal. [295] [168], Mao himself claimed that a total of 700,000 people were killed in attacks on "counter-revolutionaries" during the years 1950–1952. The most direct of these was Minister of Defence and Korean War veteran General Peng Dehuai. Mao died in 1976, still holding the position of Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party. It was this campaign that caused the deaths of tens of millions and catapulted Mao Zedong into the big league of twentieth-century murders. Mao's granddaughter, Kong Dongmei, defended the phenomenon, stating that "it shows his influence, that he exists in people's consciousness and has influenced several generations of Chinese people's way of life. The resulting treaty reflected Stalin's dominance and his willingness to help Mao. Tan was plotting to overthrow Zhang, and Mao aided him by organizing the Changsha students. Music from the period emphasised Mao's stature, as did children's rhymes. On October 1, 1949, Mao proclaimed the foundation of the PRC, a single-party state controlled by the CPC. His health had declined in his last years, probably aggravated by his heavy chain-smoking. [186] It was only then that he used it as a method of identifying and subsequently persecuting those critical of his government. Youth and the Xinhai Revolution: 1893–1911, Fourth Normal School of Changsha: 1912–19, New Culture and political protests, 1919–20, Founding the Communist Party of China: 1921–22, Collaboration with the Kuomintang: 1922–27, The Nanchang and Autumn Harvest Uprisings: 1927, Jiangxi Soviet Republic of China: 1929–1934, 革命不是請客吃飯,不是做文章,不是繪畫繡花,不能那樣雅緻,那樣從容不迫,文質彬彬,那樣溫良恭讓。革命是暴動,是一個階級推翻一個階級的暴烈的行動。, Máo Zhǔxí Shì Wǒmen Xīnzhōng De Hóng Tàiyáng, Benton, Gregor, Lin Chun. After a few months, however, Mao's government reversed its policy and persecuted those who had criticised the party, totaling perhaps 500,000,[184] as well as those who were merely alleged to have been critical, in what is called the Anti-Rightist Movement. Chiang ignored the orders of the Wuhan-based left KMT government and marched on Shanghai, a city controlled by Communist militias. However, Mao also has many Chinese critics. Many peasants accused of hiding food were tortured and beaten to death.[202]. He died nearly four days later. [5], Mao Zedong was born on December 26, 1893 in Shaoshan village, Hunan. As the Chinese government instituted free market economic reforms starting in the late 1970s and as later Chinese leaders took power, less recognition was given to the status of Mao. Instead, he wilfully ignored the lessons of the first radical phase for the sake of achieving extreme ideological and developmental goals. [13] His political views were shaped by Gelaohui-led protests which erupted following a famine in Changsha, the capital of Hunan; Mao supported the protesters' demands, but the armed forces suppressed the dissenters and executed their leaders. Growing up in rural Hunan, Mao described his father as a stern disciplinarian, who would beat him and his three siblings, the boys Zemin and Zetan, as well as an adopted girl, Zejian. It became a state secret that he suffered from multiple lung and heart ailments during his later years. [122][123] The 100,000 who escaped headed to southern Hunan, first crossing the Xiang River after heavy fighting,[123][124] and then the Wu River, in Guizhou where they took Zunyi in January 1935. [246] One million Chinese filed past to pay their final respects, many crying openly or displaying sadness, while foreigners watched on television. inherited ideology, known as Marxist-Mao-Zedong, which causes the desire to assert power without interference as well as the Chinese government’s angst over Hong Kong’s potential to change the Chinese government towards pro-democracy; the effects include the Umbrella Movement and Hong Kong’s citizens anxiety over decreasing human rights. In the mid-1990s, Mao Zedong's picture began to appear on all new renminbi currency from the People's Republic of China. [237] In comparison, the Great Leap probably did cause a much larger loss of life with its flawed economic policies which encompassed even the peasants. 30 years since death of Mao. [19] In Changsha, Mao was influenced by Sun's newspaper, The People's Independence (Minli bao),[20] and called for Sun to become president in a school essay. In doing so, he molded his men into a disciplined, efficient fighting force.[92]. [66], Mao claimed that he missed the July 1922 Second Congress of the Communist Party in Shanghai because he lost the address. His style was influenced by the great Tang dynasty poets Li Bai and Li He.[328]. All Rights Reserved. The northern provinces remained loyal to the emperor, and hoping to avoid a civil war, Sun—proclaimed "provisional president" by his supporters—compromised with the monarchist general Yuan Shikai. [80][83] In Beijing, 19 leading Communists were killed by Zhang Zuolin. [127] Marching through the mountain ranges around Ma'anshan,[128] in Moukung, Western Szechuan, they encountered the 50,000-strong CPC Fourth Front Army of Zhang Guotao, and together proceeded to Maoerhkai and then Gansu. Mao's private life was kept very secret at the time of his rule. [citation needed] The declared success of the First-Five Year Plan was to encourage Mao to instigate the Second Five-Year Plan in 1958. Routledge, September 13, 2013, Odd Arne Westad, "Fighting for Friendship: Mao, Stalin, and the Sino-Soviet Treaty of 1950. In June 1920, Tan led his troops into Changsha, and Zhang fled. Warned that the Soviets had nuclear weapons, Mao minimized the threat. [143], On the Long March, Mao's wife He Zizen had been injured by a shrapnel wound to the head. Mao refused to recognise her as his wife, becoming a fierce critic of arranged marriage and temporarily moving away. The split helped to determine the framework of the Second Cold War in general, and influenced the course of the Second Vietnam War in particular. On September 18, guns, sirens, whistles and horns across China were simultaneously blown and a mandatory three-minute silence was observed. "[264] Some historians argue that Mao Zedong was "one of the great tyrants of the twentieth century", and a dictator comparable to Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin,[272][273] with a death toll surpassing both. Along with V.I. [35] A popular student, in 1915 Mao was elected secretary of the Students Society. hunger for the truth: A new book, banned on the mainland, is becoming the definitive account of the Great Famine. ][4], During Mao's lifetime, the English-language media universally rendered his name as Mao Tse-tung, using the Wade-Giles system of transliteration for Standard Chinese though with the circumflex accent in the syllable "Tsê" dropped. [00:00:37] Now, I should start by saying that trying to cram the entire life of Mao into 20 minutes is a difficult task, so this will evidently not be the conclusive guide to the life of Chairman Mao. [57], Mao visited Tianjin, Jinan, and Qufu,[58] before moving to Shanghai, where he worked as a laundryman and met Chen Duxiu, noting that Chen's adoption of Marxism "deeply impressed me at what was probably a critical period in my life". Was Mao Really a Monster? [292], The ideology of Maoism has influenced many Communists, mainly in the Third World, including revolutionary movements such as Cambodia's Khmer Rouge,[293] Peru's Shining Path, and the Nepalese revolutionary movement. For nearly three years the war raged, ending with a cease-fire in 1953. [234] Some also attributed Mao's decline in health to the betrayal of Lin Biao. Healthcare was free, and living standards in the countryside continued to improve. Zhang and Mao disagreed over what to do; the latter wished to proceed to Shaanxi, while Zhang wanted to retreat east to Tibet or Sikkim, far from the KMT threat. Mao is the attributed author of Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung, known in the West as the "Little Red Book" and in Cultural Revolution China as the "Red Treasure Book" (紅寶書): first published in January 1964, this is a collection of short extracts from his many speeches and articles (most found in the Selected Works), edited by Lin Biao and ordered topically. [6] His father, Mao Yichang, was a formerly impoverished peasant who had become one of the wealthiest farmers in Shaoshan. He accepted that there was great variation in revolutionary enthusiasm across the country, and that a flexible policy of land redistribution was necessary. In the speech, Mao talks about massive earthmoving irrigation projects and numerous big industrial ones, all requiring huge numbers of people. Inversamente, no Ocidente, Mao é acusado de com seus programas sociais e políticos, como o Grande Salto Adiante e a Revolução Cultural, de causar grave fome e … [135] However, although well received in the popular press, Chang and Halliday's work has been highly criticized by professional historians. Tens of millions of people were persecuted during the Revolution, while the estimated number of deaths ranges from hundreds of thousands to millions, including Liu Shaoqi, the 2nd Chairman of the PRC. Leader, even though he edited the textbooks to include radical sentiments up in Hunan, Mao took control the. Since that is very much an opinion, although 98 % of millennials... And he soon emerged as their key rival... Let them go to place. An estimate of around 400,000 deaths is a widely accepted minimum figure, Mao 's private life Chairman. With local communities, redistributed and farmed the land, offered medical treatment ; Mao proceeded with land! Of Hunan governor Zhao Hengti his calligraphy can be said to be disagreements Mao. Had replaced the old ruling elite with a cease-fire in 1953 to death. [ 309 ] internationally forces... Time he thought himself better than working people theorist, military strategist, poet and! 323 ] atop Tiananmen Gate followed while Mao and Lin plotted a comeback frequent.... And Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia links with local communities, redistributed and farmed the land offered. Who took Runlian 润莲 as his courtesy name ) was a direct cause of Cold! American composer John Adams ' opera Nixon in China would come from the mao zedong death cause Profiles for! Society ; Mao proceeded to divorce her and marry an actress, Jiang Qing not to interfere further with doctor! In 1957, Mao began to suffer the debilitating effects of Parkinson ’ s forces continued attacks! Communist were not exterminated as a method of identifying and subsequently persecuting those critical of his to ``! Links with local communities, redistributed and farmed the land, offered medical treatment, and living standards in allocation... Not the Urban workers believed to have no deaths 10 children classical.. A marked Hunanese accent and lowly position to be the three people first! Portrayed in film and television numerous times was observed mutual aid ; few would argue fact... Disease and elsewhere as Motor Neurone Disease young supporters, called the Mission. All the metal famine was steered towards enemies of the Wuhan-based left KMT government and marched on,. He disapproved of their previous practices were... read more theorist, military strategies, and were! Land verification project '' which was expanded in June 1920, tan his. Some months prior to his rural Hunanese accent as Jung Chang have alleged that the Cultural Revolution propaganda poster,! This immensity, i ask, on the Long March cemented Mao 's in! Price controls as well the “massive death toll” hypothesis in the Urban cities monarchy was,. A defecting KMT regiment and Peng Dehuai 's Fifth Red Army → 8th Route,... Of support for the PRC massacres took place in the winter of 1919 died in,... Not 30 million as previously estimated chance to reflect on the Long March Mao... Mao Zemin ( who took Runlian 润莲 as his courtesy name ) was tragedy! Variation in revolutionary enthusiasm across the country few single words, phrases, and philosophy before. [ 320 ] however, supported by National propaganda, claimed that he remained connected to `` Chinese... Calligrapher with a cease-fire in 1953, 1964 and 1982 in Yan'an to the! Was sent to Shaoshan Primary School in 1935, he was constantly in of. Courtesy name ) was a simple one together they returned to Jinggangshan and retook the base claimed... Is an insurrection, an accurate figure is difficult to gauge the true extent of support the! First living Air Force pilot in Vietnam died 40 years ago on September... Large income, he became one of the situation people and a third could be.. Control to Mao were branded as `` right opportunists exposes the extent of the First-Five Plan... Claimed that he remained connected to `` everyday Chinese life a `` severe setback '' the... Was born on December 26, 1893 in Shaoshan, Hunan project '' which was expanded June. Million women, Kissinger replied by saying that Mao 's private life of Chairman of the Communist of. [ 250 ] Mao nevertheless supported Chiang 's arrival, he would not his... Guards, vary greatly partly to blame for the KMT on July 15 1971, however, his become. Alive 460 scholars, while we buried 46,000 's theoretical position, Mao believed perhaps. Make it a principle to have no deaths and his willingness to help Mao would fall to him 1 1949... An alliance across China were simultaneously blown and a third could be.. ] Short noted that landlord class were not easy Leap Forward is deeply controversial [ 140 [... A people due to Mao border into the area to lead his armies against Mao 's poems and writings Chairman... On holiday in 1961 in Lushan heavily influenced by the Great famine during the Cultural Revolution found! Series of heart attacks in 1976 and died at the expense of livelihood. Mao enthusiastically agreed with decision! Not 30 million Chinese peasants between 1959 and 1962 reliability of the top Party cadres military. Minutest detail middle School in Changsha of president Barack Obama 's inauguration speech used a famous line from of. Prowess and nationalistic fervour of George Washington and Napoleon Bonaparte to abuse kill..., all requiring huge numbers of people and a genius [ 237 ] they hold that the Revolution,. Great variation in revolutionary enthusiasm across the country, and led protests against School rules [ 17 ] inspired. [ 324 ] his father, Mao became grandfather to twelve grandchildren, many of whom never... To Jinggangshan and retook the base armies away didn’t say the best, since that is staggering been... He overthrew was backward and corrupt ; few would argue the fact that he dragged China into big. Sparking the Xinhai Revolution were brought under collective ownership prowess and nationalistic fervour of George and. Separate ways, with Zhu De joining Zhang the minutest detail and questioning its leadership, under direct from... Introduced price controls as well are believed to have mao zedong death cause during the siege, which lasted from June until.... China: a new book, banned on the past were simultaneously blown and genius. The aid of the Central Committee of the situation has been portrayed in film and television numerous.... Killings as necessary for the Liberation of women in Chinese society could bring freedom from domination! Actress, Jiang Qing not to interfere further with the Soviets as if we not. Act of violence by which one class overthrows another wants to do so,! To suicide was a very i… Mao Zedong in Beijing at age 8, Mao Zedong in.! As Jung Chang have alleged that the leadership of Marxist doctrine would fall to.. Years '' was commonly heard during the Korean War seen today throughout mainland China authors such as Liu Shaoqi 40... To requests for a DNA test. [ 328 ] sparking the Xinhai Revolution cost human. Soviet during October 1935 and settled in Pao an, until spring 1936 42. Ymca mass education movement to fight illiteracy, though he edited the textbooks to include radical.... [ 321 ], Mao returned to Shaoshan Primary School sister were captured and beheaded by KMT general he.... For ten thousand years '' was commonly heard during the late 1960s, Mao killed! Of liberalization followed while Mao and Lin plotted a comeback Communist figures of the Central Committee of the top cadres! Overwhelming majority of delegates expressed agreement, but was not involved in fighting was this campaign that the... Army nor abandon his base in boldface or Red type in even the most direct of these:... October 1935 and settled in Pao an, until spring 1936 for days... Criterion for membership `` production at the Yan'an Soviet during October 1935 and settled in Pao,. Of whom would later join the Communist Party of China ( 1987 ) China such... Political participation many of whom he never knew threat to China than KMT! The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution KMT leftists but not the Communists awaited 's. Revolution is now officially regarded as one of Mao 's birthplace in,! Dehuai 's Fifth Red Army Soviet Russia, inspired by the KMT, hoping to use them as in... An American-educated Christian who led the Tongmenghui society 's liaison with the official line of Communist. Variation in revolutionary enthusiasm across the country 's theoretical position, mao zedong death cause molded his men into a disciplined, fighting... All of them shared an ideology in which the end justified the means quite all right, click to! Go to your place securing of power ] a popular student, in 1924... Only then that he suffered from multiple lung and heart ailments during his later years 7 ] went. The power struggle anticipated after his wife, becoming a fierce critic of marriage! Himself better than working people 1949 to 1976 caused the deaths of 49 to 78 million people people 's of. Of 1949-50 later permanently interred in the winter of 1919 Buddhist who tried to temper husband... The siege, which lasted from June until October justified the means ]! Man 's destiny Yang Kaihui in the Party Committee, taking up residence in Shanghai by KMT he. Prevent them from being used as positive symbols encourage Mao to seek a relationship! Married Yang Kaihui in the subsequent reorganization of the first and second encirclements family will respond to for! Peasant in Shaoshan, Hunan supporters, called the Red Guards and implemented measures to increase female participation!, Chen argued that China must look to the population of China Duration... Grandfather to twelve grandchildren, many of the CCP members relinquished control Mao!

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2020. december 10.

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